Tóm tắt bài 1. Pronunciation Phát âm /sp/ - /st/- /sk/ 2. Grammar Defining relative clauses (revision) Non-defining relative clauses (revision) 1. Defining relative clauses (Mệnh đề quan hệ xác định) Mệnh đề quan hệ xác định là mệnh đề dùng để xác định bổ sung cho danh từ đứng trước nó. Mệnh đề quan hệ xác định là mệnh đề cần thiết cho ý nghĩa của câu, không có nó câu sẽ không đủ nghĩa. Đại từ quan hệ được dùng trong mệnh đề quan hệ xác định SubjectObjectPossessiveFor personwho/thatwho(m)/thatwhoseFor thingswhich/thatwhich/thatwhose/ of which Ví dụ minh họa The woman who/that lives next door is a doctor. (Người phụ nữ sống ở nhà bên là bác sĩ.) The picture which/that was damaged is worth thousand of pounds. (Bức tranh bị hỏng trị giá hàng ngàn bảng Anh) I know the name of the man whose car you borrowed yesterday. Lưu ý Dùng "that" mà không dùng "who/which" sau những trường hợp: hỗn hợp gồm cả người và vật dạng so sánh nhất các từ chỉ định lượng như: all, every(thing/one), some(thing/one), any(thing/one), only, little, few, much, none. Ví dụ: She is one of the kindest people that I know./ We can see farmers and cattle that are going to the field. Có thể bỏ các đại từ quan hệ làm tân ngữ: whom, which, that và trạng từ when trong mệnh đề quan hệ xác định. Ví dụ: Paris is a city (which/that) I've always wanted to visit. 2. Non-defining relative clause (Mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định) Mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định là mệnh đề cung cấp thêm thông tin về một người, một vật hoặc một sự việc đã được xác định. Mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định là mệnh đề không nhất thiết phải có trong câu, không có nó câu vẫn đủ nghĩa. Mệnh đề này được phân ranh giới với mệnh đề chính bằng dấu phẩy (,) hoặc dấu gạch ngang (-). Đại từ quan hệ sử dụng trong mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định SubjectObjectPossessiveFor personwho/thatwho(m)/thatwhoseFor thingswhich/thatwhich/thatwhose/ of which Ví dụ minh họa Harry, who you will meet tomorrow, is also a member of the board. (Harry, người mà bạn sẽ gặp vào ngày mai, là một thành viên của hội đồng quản trị.) Bogart starred in the film Casablanca, which was made in 1942. (Bogart đóng vai chính trong phim Casablanca, phim được sản xuất năm 1942.) Dr Rowan, whose secretary resigned two weeks ago, has had to do all his own typing. (Tiến sĩ Rowan, thư ký của ông đã thôi việc cách đây 2 tuần, phải tự đánh máy.) Lưu ý Không dùng "that" để giới thiệu mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định. Ví dụ: This is Mai, who sells the tickets. Not use "This is Mai, that sells the tickets." Không được bỏ các đại từ hoặc trạng từ làm tân ngữ "whom, which, when" trong mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định. Unit 9 Language Focus Exercise 1 Explain what the words below mean, using the phrases from the box. (Giải thích nghĩa của những từ dưới đây, sử dụng các cụm từ trong khung.) steals something from a shop pay rent to live in a house or flat designs buildings breaks into a house to steal things is not brave buys something from a shop (a burglar) ______________ (a customer) _____________ (a shoplifter) _____________ (a coward) ______________ (a tenant) ____________ Guide to answer A burglar is someone who breaks into the house to steal things. A customer is someone who buys something from a shop. A shoplifter is someone who steals from a shop. A coward is someone who is not brave. A tenant is someone who pays rent to live in a house or flat. Unit 9 Language Focus Exercise 2 Complete each sentence, using who, whom, or whose. (Hoàn thành mỗi câu, sử dụng who, whom, hoặc whose.) A pacifist is a person ………..believes that all wars are wrong. An orphan is a child…………….parents are dead. I don’t know the name of the woman……………I met yesterday. This school is only for children……………….first language is not English. The woman………………I wanted to see was away on holiday. Guide to answer who (Người theo chủ nghĩa hòa bình là người tin rằng tất cả các cuộc chiến tranh là sai.) whose (Trẻ mồ côi là đứa trẻ mà cha mẹ chúng đều đã chết.) whom (Tôi không biết tên người phụ nữ tôi đã gặp hôm qua.) whose (Ngôi trường này chỉ dành cho những đứa trẻ mà ngôn ngữ chính của chúng không phải là tiếng Anh.) whom (Người phụ nữ tôi muốn gặp đã đi nghỉ mát rồi.) Unit 9 Language Focus Exercise 3 Join the sentences, using who, that, or which. (Kết hợp câu, sử dụng who, that, hoặc which.) A man answered the phone. He told me you were away. A waitress served us. She was very impolite and impatient. A building was destroyed in the fired. It has now been rebuilt. Some people were arrested. They have now been released. A bus goes to the airport. It runs every half an hour. Guide to answer The man who answered the phone told me you were away. The waitress who served us was very impolite and impatient. The building which was destroyed in the fire has now been rebuilt. People who were arrested have now been released. The bus which goes to the airport runs every half an hour. Unit 9 Language Focus Exercise 4 Join the sentences below, using who, whose, or which. (Kết hợp các câu dưới đây, sử dụng who, whose, hoặc which.) Peter is studying French and German. He has never been abroad. You've all met Michael Wood. He is visiting us for a couple of days. We are moving to Machester. Manchester is in the north-west. I'll be staying with Adrian. His brother is one of my closest friends. John Bridge is one of my oldest friends. He has just gone to live in Canada. Guide to answer Peter, who has never been abroad, is studying French and German. You've all met Michael Wood, who is visiting us for a couple of days. We are moving to Manchester, which is in the north-west. I'll stay with Adrian, whose brother is one of my closest friends. John Bridge, who has just gone to live in Canada, is one of my oldest friends. Bài tập minh họa Write the information in brackets as a relative clause (defining or non-defining) in an appropriate place in the sentence. Give alternative relative pronouns if possible. (Use - to indicate ‘no relative pronoun’.) Julia's father has just come back from a skiing holiday. (he is over 80) The problems faced by the company are being resolved (I'll look at these in detail in a moment.) She was greatly influenced by her father. (she adored him) Parents are being asked to take part in the survey. (their children are between four and six) He isn't looking forward to the time. (he will have to leave at that time) The Roman coins are now on display in the National Museum. (a local farmer came across them in a field) He pointed to the stairs. (they led down to the cellar) These drugs have been withdraw from sale. (they are used to treat stomach ulcers) The singer had to cancel her concert. (she was recovering from flu) The minister talked about the plans for tax reform. (he will reveal them next month) Key Julia's father, who is over 80, has just come back from a skiing holiday. The problems faced by the company, which I’ll look at in detail in a moment, are being resolved. She was greatly influenced by her father, who/ whom she adored. Parents whose children are between four and six are being asked to take part in the survey. He isn't looking forward to the time when he will have to leave. The Roman coins, which a local farmer came across in a field, are now on display in the National Museum. He pointed to the stairs which/that led down to the cellar. These drugs, which are used to treat stomatch ulcers, have been withdraw from sale. The singer, who was recovering from flu, had to cancel her concert. The minister talked about the plans for tax reform that/ which/ - he will reveal next month.